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The industry sponsored study of 20 children with a variety of underlying primary diagnoses found that zoledronic acid (0.1mg/kg/year) every three months for two years increased bone mineral density (BMD) - particularly in the lumbar spine - and cortical thickness. There was also evidence of vertebral modelling.

2011 Update: antigen-specific therapy in type 1 diabetes

Michels, Aaron W.a; von Herrath, Matthiasb

Purpose of review: To update on the clinical trials using antigen-specific therapies in autoimmune diabetes.

Recent findings: Type 1 diabetes is now a predictable disease with the measurement of islet autoantibodies, and the incidence is increasing dramatically. Well tolerated and effective interventions are needed to stop the underlying autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing beta cells. Beta-cell antigens, insulin and glutamic acid decarboxylase, are being used to preserve endogenous insulin production in individuals with new-onset diabetes and to prevent diabetes. The results of antigen-specific immune intervention trials are reviewed and consideration is given to future directions for inducing tolerance in type 1 diabetes.

Summary: Antigen-specific immune therapies act by enhancing regulatory T cell function, in animal models often locally and selectively in islets or pancreatic lymph nodes while inhibiting effector T cells. This therapeutic pathway provides a safe treatment to preserve beta cell function in new-onset diabetic individuals with the GAD-Alum vaccine being the most extensively studied therapy. Insulin is being used in many forms to prevent diabetes and stop the underlying autoimmune process. For the future, combination immune therapies targeting different pathways in the immune system will be needed to effectively induce sustained tolerance in type 1 diabetes.